HSS8121 Public Art—reflective blog 1

    The public environment of human being is a stage of activity which is in the image of the social group tribe, and it is a human living environment which has a great relationship with the landscape, race, culture and ecology. Considering and treating the public environment from the angle of art is an important aspect of human beings optimizing their living condition and optimizing their own situation. Looking back at the development of social history, we can read about the development of environmental art and public art.

    If public`s meaning in the term of public art is only in the sense of “group”, almost all art has this kind of public nature. To explore it in the spatial sense, then, is an attempt to define public art. All public art is called public art because it exists first in public spaces, that is, it must exist spatially in a public way, even if a sculpture is used by a sculptor in a public place, if it was placed in private space before it was finished, it would be a private work of art, not a public art. One exception, of course, is that private space can, in some cases, be transformed into public space, albeit temporarily. Thus, the concept of public is also spatially variable. One of the simplest examples is that the same sculpture works are placed in private spaces and in public spaces, and their properties are inconsistent. In private spaces, we cannot call it public art. By this definition, all works of art placed in public spaces can be counted as public art. The problem, however, is that the meaning of the word public changes over time as it evolves over time. For example, because of the change in ownership of ancient private or imperial gardens and castles, a large part of them is open to the public nowadays, and the expansion of the audience has transformed the art of gardening from being dedicated to private families and royalty to having a public character. This kind of art, which used to belong to only a certain class, is truly universal today. As it turns out, public space can be changed.

    Space is a relatively philosophical term, relative to time. Public space is an important part of urban space. According to Andres Schneider et al. Public space can be divided by several different levels: 1. Physical public spaces, 2. The public spaces of society, 3. Symbolic public spaces. The first concerns the existence of its material, the second focuses on the relationship between the internal norms of space and society, and the third focuses on memorials and the “atmosphere” of the place. They believe that every public space, whether objective or subjective, can be defined by one or more of the meanings of these definitions, understanding the meaning of public space changes the way we think about public space. It should be noted that, while we are willing to consider the three types of public spaces that are well positioned as three different types, each public space incorporates one or more of these types. Physical public spaces such as streets, squares, meadows, beaches, etc. can be formed through urban design. Social and public spaces such as coffee rooms, restaurants, bars and other forms of media, the internet and private housing. The physical public space is the most obvious, arguably the most romantic… it is determined by the type of ownership that is connected to the building and the “natural environment”.

    The social commons is one of the most interesting of the three forms, because it has the potential to transform or reestablish ownership and give new meaning to urban space. The social commons is in constant re-definition, through which conflicts of use value and exchange value can be accomplished in a real place. Symbolic space is accomplished through norms and the collective memory of people, because contrary to the material in the physical public space, this form of determining public space is difficult to classify as a “physical place”. In most cases, symbolic public space is a short-term survival experience and is limited to a certain group of people. If symbolic space becomes part of the general history, it is vulnerable to a transformation in which the meaning and connection of this space begin to be linked to a current prevailing historical method. This is enough to explain why our prehistoric rock paintings, carvings, religious art, and tomb art can be classified as public art today, art that can be seen as public art in a symbolic public space.

    There is variability in social space, which can be transposed between public and private. Thus, the public spaces we explore touch on a wider range of arts that can be attributed to public spaces, but on an spatial level, the public art space can include the physical public space, the social public space and the symbolic public space, which together constitute the external existence of public art in information age.

    The public and private nature of space are mutually reinforcing and symbiotic, and absolute public spaces cannot exist without absolute private space, in the absence of open and free public spaces, there can be no secret and safe private spaces.

    Cities are a way of human existence, and they cannot be separated from the people who choose to live in cities. The city is used by the people and by the citizens, which is the difference between urban and rural farmers. The Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens points out that the establishment of civil society is directly linked to the emergence of modern forms of the state and is therefore linked to it in terms of reference. In traditional countries, most everyday life, at least in the countryside, is outside the executive power of the home. Most local communities are self-governing in accordance with their traditional customs and lifestyles, and the executive is less intrusive in most forms of private activity. However, this outer sphere is not a civil society.

    In fact, purely abstract urban public spaces do not exist, and each type of urban public space ends up in a different place, a public place, with different social activities. Each kind of place forms different spirit of place, they are closely related with its geographical position, social function and place function. It can be roughly divided into the following categories: 1. Political venues such as Government Buildings, town hall, courts and government agencies; 2. Cultural public places such as schools, museums, art galleries, research institutes, historical sites and so on; 3. Commercial public places, including commercial streets, commercial cities, etc. 4. General public places such as railway stations, wharves, airports, subways, squares, streets, etc. 5. Recreational public places such as plazas, theme parks, green spaces, teahouses, cafes, sports, etc. The nature and function of these places determine the nature and function of the public space, and also determine the spirit of the place. But overall, it is the history, culture, and modern social consciousness of the large public spaces in which these places are located. I would therefore prefer to see these sites as differences in the functions of space in different cities and communities.

    Fundamentally, the public way of public art relies not on the style and genre of art, but on the spatial spirit of a collective or a group, it is the external condition of the human beings to transform their living environment. While human history and culture determine the characteristics of public art, public art, in turn, directly or subtly influences and modifies the cultural concept and aesthetic mode of human beings.

    In general, the greatest feature of public space is openness, the openness of the place of public space art activities and the resulting openness to the public at the site. It is open to all audiences in this space, and the public can communicate with it and make suggestions. In a certain sense, the openness of public art lies in the openness of the space in which it operates, and requires the public to make recommendations and opinions on it once it has been made public, public art management agencies and production agencies can evaluate and amend public art works. Public art is a kind of special social esthetic, its standard must be in being read and corrected. Public art is an artistic landscape of various media, facilities and other art forms that are publicly displayed, it differs from the non-public nature of the private sphere in general, the non-public nature of a minority or individual group. “public” in public art is aimed at the large environment in which people and people live, including the natural ecological environment and the humane and social environment. In a broader sense, human society can be understood as a mosaic in a natural ecosystem.

Public art in china

    Since the 1980s, china has also attached great importance to the construction of public art in the process of urban construction and development, but what is missing is that, first of all, Chinese governments confuse urban sculpture with the concept of public art, second, the management of public art is not given to the people, but to government organizations such as the city sculpture management association, which is set up by the government, the government selects sculptors and urban landscape artists to build sculptures for urban landmarks, which often end up as simple ideologically expressive entities, associated with poor symbolism as an aesthetic urban landmark and symbol, and even a perverted convenience for voyeurs in the name of art; when the government changes, for a variety of reasons, the original city sculptures may have been pushed back, as if the demolition of old buildings was generally undemocratic, and no one had the creative rights, the right to speak and the right to protect, they don’t seem to have anything to do with the value of intellectual property or copyright. The existence of these problems and the reality of china, including the weak sense of democracy of the people, the unsound legal system, some biases in local government’s perception of art, and the lack of support for public art in tax policies, there is a relationship that is hard to fathom.

    Public art is not just a sculpture, or a static visual representation in general, but it is often through acts, events, and the construction of platforms where people interact, so that people can have a dialogue that allows them to be heard. This is precisely the channel and the possibility of providing diversity for social democracy and community governance. Much of Chinese public art appeals to external visual publicity, but not enough in terms of the deep involvement of community life and respect for the people.

HSS8120 TINY DATUM: The things I didn’t`t say


I sent a broadcast messages to all of my friends to ask them “if there were something you wanted to tell me but you didn`t say?” Then I got some very interesting feedback.


I translate part of the answers into English and generate  QR code by Processing. QR code is just like the things we didn`t say, you can`t read them directly, but they do contain some important information.


print the QRcode image.

4.inner drama

I edited the QR code in two ways. One is just a QR code wall, another is I edited a photo of runners, I changed everyone’s face into QR code. These QR codes contain the information of what`s they think about when they are running.




QR Code technology overview

QR code is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric, byte/binary, and kanji) to efficiently store data; extensions may also be used.

The QR code system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes. Applications include product tracking, item identification, time tracking, document management, and general marketing.

A QR code consists of black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging device such as a camera, and processed using Reed–Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted. The required data is then extracted from patterns that are present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image.

The QR Code standard defines a method to encode a string of characters or bytes into a grid of black and white pixels. The text could be numbers, names, URLs, et cetera. Because the standard uses a 2D barcode, it can store much more information than a traditional 1D barcode. To illustrate for comparison, a 1D barcode usually stores 10 to 20 digits, while a QR code often stores 50 textual characters. Note that a QR Code barcode simply represents static data – the barcode does not inherently cause an action to be executed.


Some of the frequently used official terminology have non-intuitive meanings, as summarized below:

QR Code
A popular international standard (symbology), created by Denso Wave, that specifies how messages are converted to barcodes.
QR Code symbol
A single 2D graphical barcode, which results from the QR Code generation process. Informally this is called a “QR code” (without using the word symbol) or a barcode.
A black or white pixel in a QR Code symbol. Note that a module can be scaled to occupy multiple pixels on a screen or in an image file.
A way of measuring the size of a symbol, from 1 to 40. Version 1 has 21×21 modules, version 2 has 25×25, …, and version 40 has 177×177. Note that all 40 versions are defined in a single standard, and this term differs from the conventional meaning of the word version.
Indicates the revision of the QR Code standard. (The word model here corresponds with the conventional meaning of the word version.) Model 1 QR codes are outdated and essentially never seen. Model 2 QR codes are widespread and dominant. Model 2 also has an extension called Micro QR codes (not implemented in my library). Note that model 1 defines versions 1 through 14, whereas model 2 QR defines versions 1 through 40, allowing much more data capacity.

Structure of a QR code, highlighting functional elements


HSS 8120 –My friends: they are tiny datum in my phone

      For this assessment, we propose the theme Tiny Datum. As a provocation and opposition to Big Data, Tiny Datum is something that displays and interacts with a very small number of data points during its existence. Tiny Datum’s data does not have to be stored or shared, its behaviour can be entirely ephemeral and self-fulfilling. Tiny Datum’s datum can relate to its own data, for example, its power usage or temperature, rather than to any economic, governmental, security or scientific concern, as is typically the case in big data research. Tiny Datum should take a minimalistic approach to visualisation, sonification or data analysis. We imagine that pieces could take diverse forms (devises, websites, performances) which operate on an absurdly small data set. Tiny Datum should offer a playful alternative for big data design and gently suggest that there could be more to data than just size.

When I got this assignment, the very first idea comes to me is WeChat. WeChat is a Chinese multi-purpose social media mobile application software developed by Tencent. It was first released in 2011, and by 2017 it was one of the largest standalone mobile apps by monthly active users, with over 980 million monthly active users (902 million daily active users). It has been called China’s “App For Everything” and the world’s first “Super App” because of its many functions and platforms, and lauded as one of the world’s most powerful apps. In addition to China, it is also the most popular messaging app in Bhutan.

Wechat is known for its Mini Programs feature which incorporates many different functions and programs developed by Tencent and independent developers and has been consistently updated. In January 2018, Wechat announced a record of 580,000 mini-programs in its feature, while being credited for “touching almost every aspect of the online-offline field”.Recently, Wechat Games have received huge popularity, with its “Jump Jump” game attaining 100 million daily active users, as of January 2018.

when we talk about social media, we usually think about big data. But I think as an ordinary user, big data does not make a lot of sense to us. The people and things we care about are very limited. So in my project, I use the data from my WeChat friends list. One main way to add friends on WeChat is scan QR Code, which means I can abstract every friend on my phone to a single simple QR Code.





HSS8120 Tiny Datum: the tiny clues that uncover huge trends

When I got this assignment, the very first thing I do is try to understand this question deeply and carefully. What is the tiny datum? How small can be called a tiny datum? What`s the difference between the tiny datum and big data? So I try to make the definition as clearly as possible in order to continue my work.

1.what is the tiny datum?

According to Oxford dictionary

I think tiny datum refers to the datum which needs a new application method to reflect its individual, efficient, personalized high value. Although we are in the era of big data, big data does not have much to do with the lives of ordinary people. As a user, we only produce data rather than use them. In short, big data is about someone else’s business, but tiny datum is about yourself.


In 1989, Russell L. Ackoff published the book <From Data to Wisdom> which systematically construct the DIKW system, that is, Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom. American scholar Zeleny proposed four Know metaphors, distinguishing the elements in the DIKW system, as shown in the figure below.

According to this theory, I think actually data itself does not make sense, data analysis gives its meaning.



Big data gives people an illusion that everything can be analyzed quantitatively. But there are many things in life can not be measured by the number.Humans are emotional animals. So I hope tiny datum can make up the ignored part of big data.