Diary 10

06.01.2015 (2:06 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized


Lawns implicate order and ideology, this is true. I remember the trip which I visited Cambridge, now not only a place of academia, but also a place of tourism—quite funny. One of the colleges I entered has two square lawns symmetrically distributed at the two sides of the central axis. No one, as I’ve observed, tramped on them. I thought this demonstrates a kind of ideology that has less thing to do with Marxism than with the postmodernism, when knowledge supports the power and decides who should take control of maintaining the order. Yet what I’m going to elaborate here is about my exciting feeling of reading Berleant’s <Living in the Landscape>—the chapter <Modes of Negativity>. Very excited indeed. I had to mention that International Congress of Aesthetics again, where he was another person I’ve encountered. Now I think I have enough confidence to even take a critical perspective towards such a reputable scholar.


I agree with him that the opposite side of beauty, in the word of ugly, doesn’t mean it has no aesthetic value at all. However, when he tries to expand his thought in terms of aesthetic disvalue—the true meaning where we want to discuss the opposite side of aesthetics, the logic seems to be not that clear. It is easy to categorize them into 7 types according to his elaboration: The offensive, the banal, the unfulfilled, the inappropriate, the trivializing, the deceptive, and the destructive. I’ve found it difficult to imagine what he asserts as to join the unfulfillment with others, and particularly with the banal, to make it more aesthetically disvalued. I believe on the contrary. For example, how can the unfulfilled connected with the banal? In my eyes, it’s always that the unfulfilled ignites the creation, and the imaginative thinking. Think about how we create the wheels and then other tool that have wheels? There is an invention line that the former one can always be regarded as not finished. But human beings continuously assembly them, change how they are organized and then make out more convenient tools. Isn’t this a way of stimulating creative imagination, through the unfulfilled one by one??


Also, I’m particularly sceptical about the destructive. I don’t know whether I’ve grasped his core meaning or not. I think he has equalized the destructive with the bad, and the aesthetic value with the good. But I would prefer that the destructive has nothing to do with the ethical judgment. I’ve spent about several months, trying to abstract the Chinese political system, the hierarchy and the structure into a medium prototype. Then I’ve made a conclusion from it that this system has an inherent stableness and is like an engineering works. It is built up in that way and might suddenly collapse in another way, with not ethical intention. Thus I assume the destructive character might have nothing to do with our aesthetical judgment at all, and the examples he has made leave me an impression of ethical purification.


Now relaxation: Some sketches about lawns in mini landscapes. They are lovely indeed. (Both colourful and black/white style)



Diary 9

05.01.2015 (6:27 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

(Logos to be confirmed)

I don’t think it’s a constructive suggestion that there should be a rank regarding problems we’ve faced. In fact I believe there exists some solutions that can tackle these problems at the same time, and it depends on whether the holistic map is obtained containing distinct industries. Take the landscape architecture for example. If the company helps the city plan its landscape, through choosing plants that can absorb more carbon dioxide, would it be possible that this company obtain more subsidies from the government? This would possibly help the farmers who are the plant suppliers become rich and thus tack the economic disparity issues.

Oil really matters: because it concretes the energy from the sun, which costs thousands of years to form but now within a flash (I’m exaggerating), it can be consumed. As I’ve analysed, to stop people from using cars is not practical, so the solution might lie in to enhance the efficiency of energy consumption within the car. I’m thinking about if I can utilize it into fullest potential building up some installations around the road.

Totally agree, totally—— Critics think it is ‘business as usual’. These fixes would allow our wasteful and dangerous lifestyles to continue and not fundamentally change our relationship with the planet. —what’s more severe, it’s related to their corruptive financial systems (I believe so—look at the documentary <Inside Job>), which also incorporates carbon transaction nowadays (see those investment banks’ business). Now the problems expands from a just climate change to economy and politics.

I’ve made some virtual seals about some gigantic engineering projects happening in China mentioned in this lecture. They are the reminders of not only these projects, but some part of Chinese culture.

The meanings of the Chinese characters that are adopted in the design: “东”,“西”,“南”,“北”:East, West, South and North; “水”,“电”,“气”:Water, electricity, and gas; “中国”:China;“中国人”: Chinese people; “西气东输”:Gas Transportation from West to East;“西电东送”:Electricity Transportation from West to East;“南水北调”:Water Transportation from South to North; In all, these three names are short for China’s gigantic engineering projects that are proposed and being executed as part of the project of Western Region Development led by the State Council of People’s Republic of China, which includes infrastructure development, ecological environment conservation et cetera in Western Region of China.



Basically the blue arrow-shape rounds and the Chinese characters in the middle of them look like the seals that often appear in CPC’s files as symbols of being authorized. Also, blue color coordinates with the meaning of the center characters of seals: the sea water, the electrical spark and the igniting gas. Specially, the “玉”inside the box “口”of “国”means jade and Lantian, a region located in Xi’an, Shanxi Province, is famous for its production. The corresponding Chinese characters of Lantian are “蓝田”,of which “蓝”owns the meaning of blue color.

The Chinese characters “东”,“西”,“南” and “北”themselves in these seals are not showed in their original ways but have been changed into different directions.

“输”,“送”and“调”share a same meaning of “transportation” in Chinese. This meaning is expressed by the blue arrow-shape rounds since they can be imagined as the tunnels or wires that transport gas, water, and electricity, so they are replaced by them and the “西气东”,“西电东”and“南水北” left, together with the accordingly blue arrow-like rounds stand for the three gigantic engineering projects. What’s more, the “口”of “国”, which is outside of the“玉”is expressed by the boundary of the white square part of the seal, so that the meaning of “国”is properly showed.




Diary 8

05.01.2015 (1:36 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized

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In fact I think there is a parallel between the Cronon’s critics against the wilderness and the tradional Chinese Taoism’s point of view on environment and nature. There seems to be a lack of accurate interpretation upon the latter (a problem caused by translations). To conjure up the definition of wilderness implicate itself a separation of the human beings from the nature—-I agree with it, and I think it is in accordance with the Taoism’s thought that human beings and the nature should be a uniformity ()(However I’m very depressed that most of the scholars might have translate it into the phrase that “heavens and the human beings should be uniformed together”….I’m not which one is correct, but I intend to insist my own).

I know there is a simulated biosphere in America, Biosphere 2 ( It might be a good idea to build one and then let all kinds of people to take a visit, but will this leave a false impressions towards people on biosphere—a site for experiments? I think there should be a good control of the extent to which human beings should deal with nature: Surely leaving it untouched is not what I prefer, but I do think the over-use of it would cause severe problems—unsustainable—a common-sense world nowadays.

Conflicts: Climate Change <> Automobiles

It’s easy to obtain the conclusion that people should buy fewer cars in order to not only save energy but also to reduce the greenhouse gases—right. But those who strongly support this do ignore the logic behind the surface: Why are cars invented? I myself am a fan of mechanic engineering, the engines, the different parts of a car—-It manifests the skills, the quality and in some way some national characteristics. Cars sometimes also signifies a degree of freedom (Saubruch, 2341) and the ambition to explore the faraway. It’s not just about air pollution. I think there should be a balance among the economic development, the sustainability and also human beings’ enthusiasm about making.

Resilience/Arup/Rockefeller foundation:

I’ve checked there is a framework about it and I should read it:


I’ve planned to visit Sheffield University because there is going to be a conference held there, at the Edge, Endcliff Village, which is called Architecture and Resilience on a Human Scale:(

I should grasp this opportunity to understand what Genius Loci means: Why does the holder choose this place as the conference site. Besides, I really want to go to another university, whose architecture school is also strong enough and then make some swift comparisons—-I mean it’s easy to develop arrogance if one stays in a good place for a relatively long time and ignores other competitors (I’m not flattering the Newcastle University, but am telling the truthJ) The date has been decided and I’ve downloaded the map (city centre to the Edge)—colourful one but I don’t know it really helps.

What I fell about sustainability (I want to forget about the textbook words but change it into some warmer ones): Here is the sketch (see the beginning of this diary)



Diary 7

04.01.2015 (8:10 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

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Mountains, Mountains, and Mountains

It has surprised me at first in UK, mountains were the ones being disliked, even after the Great Tour led them to the Alps in the 18th century. I’m used to mountains, like the reader: The clouds, the plants, and the enjoyments and fear obtained when climbing them. I think there might be some reasons why British are avert to them: Because they are barren, and because many of them are located in highlands which are not quite suitable for human being’s residence. However I grew up in an environment where mountains are the frequent destinations. I was often ill at that time, and the trip and the rest within the mountains seemed to have a healing functions. Instead of feeling fear, a sense of quietness and relaxation were experienced. I think the otherness that the sublime category in aesthetics has implicated is indeed the result of the compulsive separation between cities and nature, not because its attraction itself. In fact the trip to mountains just remind me how the original state of human beings should be. I’m the half fan of Taoism in China, and I think it half justifiable and half not that right. Taoism emphasizes the harmony, the uniformity between the objects and subjects, the heaven and the human beings (物我合一,天人合一) (庄子,《内篇·。齐物论》;《外篇。山木》), which means the sublime state lies in the disappearance of the boundaries between the subjects and the otherness. I agree with it.  My illness was cured through the way that I interacted with the road, high and low, winding and stiff—the exact characteristics that may cause the fear.

I share with a word descriptions for one of my design:

[Travel Ticket to Chongqing Jinyun Mountain National Nature Reserve

Cost control: 15 RMB


In Chinese, the name of this national nature reserve which locates in Chongqing means a mountain surrounding with red clouds. Such character can be seen in the image. Apart from that, a winding road is shown along which travelers may climb up the mountain.

The sentences beside the image come from a poem written by Jiadao, a poet in Tang Dynasty. The whole poem tells a story: a visitor asks the apprentice of a hermit under a pine tree, “where can I meet the hermit?” and the apprentice answers that the hermit has been picking up herbs. He surely is in the mountain, however, clouds cover the sight and he doesn’t know specifically where he goes. Chongqing Botanical Garden has been built in the reserve where the pine tree is a typical plant. This sentence, together with the picture, arouses travelers’ curiosities to explore the mountain.

Altogether, they are put in gate-like borders surrounding with Chinese traditional decoration images. It is in accordance with the usage of the travel ticket since it will be checked at the entrance gate of the reserve. What’s more, the ticket’s gate-shape is different from typical Chinese ticket—rectangular shape. It helps leave a deep impression for travelers, which adds collection value. For Chongqing Jinyun Mountain National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau which sells the ticket as part of its income, it adds intangible value.]

Chongqing Jinyun Mountain National Nature Reserve is the mountain where I travelled a lot. It acts not only as a mountain, but also a cultural heritage rich in Buddhism and Taoism relics: Temples and sculptures on the cliff of the mountain. I think tour to mountains should be encouraged so I designed it and wish more people could be attracted by it.

Following the last diary. Here are the sketches drawn when I visited Bourneville Village (See Above).

Diary 6

03.01.2015 (11:35 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

Landscape & Control:


The control and regulation within the landscape does not necessarily lead to Bentham’s panoptical style. As I understand, Panopticon, whether it’s the classical surveillance towards prison cells (Bemtham, ), or the CCTV using the information technology, surely involves the state of being gazed and monitored. However there is another way of taking control, by incorporating the control into design. It’s different from the architectural form in the prison which facilitate the custodians—the side taking control of, but to facilitate the ones to be controlled to voluntarily and willingly participate into it. I’ve noticed the area outside the Baltic and made a sketch of it:

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The grey frames for bicycles stand there, together with the benches, the grasses and short bushes. No signs are used to remind and regulate the visitors to place their bicycles in that way, but people already form that habit. Is this a type of control designed by the landscape architect and the property owner—possibly the Baltic Centre—I say: Yes. But I myself wouldn’t feel any sense of pain or uncomfortable. On the contrary, I’m very willing to obey it—-Is it a way of internalising the discipline, as Foucault might suggest (sfsdffad)? Probably not. At least I think I’m following the principle of organization and aesthetics, out of nature. The reason why I feel comfortable is not that I’ve adapted and internalised what the designers expect or implicitly plan—a kind of discourse from their professional knowledge—-I even don’t know it, but I think I should do so, so that my personality can be fully released and maintained. Sounds quite weird, but it’s true from my personal experience.

Industrial Revolution, Parks, Garden City Movement, Cadbury Bourneville Village (My narrative)

The way I’ve felt about parks and Garden City Movement is through traveling to Cadbury Bourneville Village. I was impressed from the beginning, by the railway station, though very small indeed. I had to admit that the tourism industry was quite developed (Again my marketing background starts to work, see below the Visual Identity system).  The houses were quite organized, though I as an outside couldn’t fully grasp the meaning of those gardens. But surely the biggest one, opposite the Cadbury World was impressive. It was very cold that morning, and I had to take a train from where I lived to the village. I spent about 2 hours or so just sitting still on the grass or the fallen branches. A lady ran across my front and asked if I was cold or not. I said no but indeed I was. I watched people come in and sat on the grass with their picnic settings. Yes I sensed it was a tranquil and comfortable place. I drew some sketches and later, the tomorrow, went into Cadbury World. It was fun. More funny is it that I went to the staff store because I found there the sweets were so cheap, but then I was told these things are just for the staff, not for visitors. Quite disappointed. But I bought my purple purse—which I still use up to now. I like it, cheap and functionally useful. I like this trip, together with the impression that the city Birmingham has left me.

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Stop here. I have to sleep.



Diary 5

03.01.2015 (7:17 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

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Questions concerning the sense of belonging:

I agree with what the reader has described about his own experience: The way he has built up the sense of belonging is through being familiar with a particular place, but the word “place” is an obscure one. In his context, the place means somewhere he live, as an agent, which means he has the authority to observe, research, and judge based on his rational thinking—-a fruit of enlightenment.  However there are exceptions: Think about the immigrants who have been living overseas for quite a long time. Physically, they’ve already been detached from the landscape which they are quite familiar with, once they settle themselves in the new land. But the sense of belonging has lasted. This is evidenced through their later contributions towards that place, or here more specifically towards their home country.  I’m thinking about T.Y.Lin International, an engineering company specializing in bridges, infrastructure and construction. The founder of it Tung-Yen Lin was the one who initiated the development of Pudong New Area in Shanghai, China, to build it as a world-class city. Today when foreigners talk about China, they no longer only focus on Peking, but also Shanghai. In fact Tung-Yen Lin has changed his nationality ever since he resided in U.S.A., because of family reasons (at that time the communist party and the Kuomintang fought against each other very fiercely, and Lin’s father was the justice of the Republic of China’s supreme court, one that was taken controlled by Kuomintang, so he had to escape from the mainland China, mainly in order to survive, because later the communist party took charge of the land). However the sense of belonging didn’t disappear but was implemented through his ambition in changing the rural area of Shanghai into a modern and open city. The landscape has changed, and so as the identity of Tung-Yen Lin (from a Chinese to an American, or more generally called the Ethnic Chinese), but the sense of belonging seems not to have changed. I am wondering how exactly has the landscape—the place of origin where one was born—shaped such a sense. This is one of the reasons why I choose Newcastle University to continue my education, because it is a port, and because it is similar to where I was born. In this way, I want to find out if this kind of landscape can remind me of where I come from and what type of person I should be (I’m adopting the hypothesis that landscape help shape a person’s personality. I wish I could find out, but I’m not sure if I can get the answer). 2 years after I was born, I was moved to a mega-city with 30 million population (current statistics, but things haven’t changed much. 20 years ago it was still a mega city). This is another story.

I’ll stop here. I’ll attach a plain photo from Newcastle—a gloomy whether, like Beijing’s famous air pollution. It reminds me another name of that mega city—Fog City:

Bridge, Newcastle

Another one is a sketch (above at the start of this diary): It’s at the end of the China Town in Newcastle. It’s a mini landscape called 华(Chinese)茵(Grass) 坪 (Court).  See how can a typical Chinese landscape be parachuted upon a foreign land?


Diary 4

02.01.2015 (11:51 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

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“Landscape as an aesthetic product functions symbolically on behalf of an elite”—-True.

“Its visual aesthetics at once express and occlude particular socio-economic relations”—-True.

But what makes the issue hard to deal nowadays is, if Marxist’s theory is correct in exposing the inherent power, the ugliness of capitalism, and calls for action—the revolution by the oppressed social class, then there must be some unbearable reasons for the working class to hold the insurrection, whether it’s similar to any revolutions happening before, the Frances, or the nearer Soviet Union. However, unlike what Cosgrove has depicted that “Death has a sanguinary face in Arcadia”, or “the land is figured as a bleak and cold terrain in which there is a palpable sense of a way of life coming to an end” (2008: 76-77), the real conditions do not go to that extreme: Survival is guaranteed; you can rent a small room within a set of an apartment, normally already being modified in order to earn higher profits; you can buy food using your salary, though you can’t save much of it (to be honest I once resided with and even was one of them). What’s more, the elitists’ landscape is even shared as public sphere, where common people walk across, stop for a rest, or even tramp on the grass. In a word, conflicts are “blurred”, whether deliberately, or unintentionally.

Engineering works: I’ve found the parallel: Similar to Versailles’ water supply work, which cost a large amount of labour, the Great Wall in pre-modern China was also built in such inefficiency, though the purpose might be different. It is the manifestation of the central government’s power and control—this is correct, but it serves as other goals as well, for example, the defence against the invasions. The Great Wall survived after hundreds of years, but as embarrassing as what Germany has encountered when trying to rebuild their Heimat (home) landscape, the Great Wall seems to act as the evidence of ethnic conflicts: The conflicts between the Han ethnicity and the other minories. This, is not welcomed by the current ideology.

If sheep farming is the characteristic of native British landscape, then what is ours? I would immediately think of the Inner Mongolia ones mentioned in the first diary. But that’s far from enough. The large territory does offer varieties of landscape style, whether they are desserts, prairies, hills and plains, but if there is a lack of a unique representation, there is going to be a worry about uniformity, and the control, which I don’t dislike to be honest. I think of uniformity as a way of spreading the meaning for life, what we live for and fight for. That’s why I don’t resist wars and am aloof against pacifism. Wars are justifiable in some ways and those fight in the wars shouldn’t be forgotten. They fight for the land, for where they were born, and for the landscape which has nurtured them.

I have to stop here. But I include photos and a sketch depicting the landscape in front of the so-called ruling class office areas in China (but I’ve already doubted whether it should still be called in this way, since the reason why this financial institution exists in China is, in my analysis, just, taken a global perspective. Hence I started to think if landscape can act as a buffering area between the conflicting classes, geographically, and mentally as well.


Diary 3

02.01.2015 (3:59 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

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The connection between the land and the landscape seems to be an instinctive step, just as how the town is combined with townscape, in the perspective of urban planning, but the emphasis on human being’s gazing upon it seems to be another debate between the social constructivism and the objectivism.

The Third Reich’s example seems to be too extreme but it is typical to inspect the landscape architects’ roles. I would think of some more subtle instances where landscape architects are involved in middle or small size projects. I once worked in a middle size construction group in China, mainly dealing with outreach by Photoshop. The landscape architects there usually have to obtain certificates before being formally employed.  These certificates are the extension of their higher education, normally 4-5 years’ professional trainings. The certificates are like the hierarchy to horrify the amateurs from entering into this world. Ironically, the boss who is in charge of this group is a man without any higher education background at all, though certificates are still obtained after his years’ of practice. Thus in this group, the landscape architects are actually not empowered, but are kind of forced to enact what the boss is willing to see. Another assembly parts for the whole organizational machine, I think. However here when I inspect this logic, I’ve found myself immediately placed the professional landscape architects to the higher level than the boss himself. Why has this happened? Maybe I have wished that after years of academic education, landscape architects might have more knowledge about beauty and principle. Hence I sink myself into a belief that the sense of beauty is the product of education, not the basic human instinct—-perhaps a dangerous first impression indeed.

I’m not quite persuaded to believe in Christaller’s cause and effect theory: Market force is not the always the factor in deciding how the towns and cities should be distributed. One Arup’s (an independent engineering company with the headquarter in London)’s project in China is called Wanzhuang Eco-City of Agriculture. The goal of it is not to set up new markets and production line, but to fill in the urban-rural gap and lead to a harmonious urbanization way. I think I’m now facing the question of why we should build cities, if cities are not that attractive, and even cause troubles. But I have to admit that cities do feed my eyes: They are the same in general (gathering, all kinds of systems), but different in specific angle. Birmingham, Edinburgh, York, Leeds, and Sheffield….I’ve left my footprint there, and they’ve left the distinct impressions to me as well.

I was once guided through emails by a female landscape architect. She introduced me the Landscape Institute (, and also the points that need to be noticed when dealing with urban planning. Points are just points, they are not the whole way of how I feel about the city. Here is Newcastle (I’ve grouped the branding information it tries to deliver. I’m always Marketing oriented).




Diary 2

02.01.2015 (3:38 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized

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The five ages described in Hesiod’s ‘Works and Days’ poem sounds similar to what Buddhism calls as six circles of reincarnation, where the heaven and the hell circle stands at the top and the bottom, while others such as the hungry ghosts, the animals, and the human beings stand in the middle. Human beings who seek for the better state should follow the good conduct principle so as to win the chance of entering into heaven. However, the need for solving the problem due to lack of resources, or the intention of regarding it as a problem seems not be that strong as Hesiod might have realized. In fact what I know about Buddhism is to ban, or at least take control of the desire. In such a case, if the Utopian landscape is to be built upon a place where Buddhism is Genius Loci, the aim of it should never be to address the need, but rather to escape from the endless pain, and to seek for the salvation.


The meaning of plants may come from the books like Odyssey where asphodel is connected with privilege, the glory of god and afterlife ideal. I’m not sure if asphodel and narcissus means a same kind of plant, however their inherent meanings—the label attached on them seem to be quite different. As is widely known, narcissus is a symbol of extreme self-admiration and surely has nothing to do with utopian imaginary (well it may have, but it largely depends on to what extent the symbolic universe is challenged and reconstructed). Hence would it be quite weird if a plant is selected to a wrong place? I’m thinking about the story of the white and the red poppies—-but this time, things become more serious.


In my point of view, it is quite ironic that nowadays, the famous Champs-Élysées avenue has partly become the representation of self-indulgent district, where people enjoy luxury goods and embrace consumerism. This, seems to be in contradiction with what the Elysian Fields originally signifies—-the residence of the virtuous.


Not sure if I’ve understood the feature of the imaginaries here. Does that mean the imaginary landscape is just an expectation? This reminds me of a quite common experience nowadays about tourism: People know about a place of interest (In China it quite often appears as a built imaginary landscape based on the utopian literature, like that Peach Blossom Spring), through media, whether it’s newspaper, the TV, the internet, or the brochures. The promotional discourse guides their route towards the destination, and also to some extent distort how they experience that place. The souvenir shopping replaces the instinctive exploration that is without a specific purpose, which is sometimes full of unexpected gains and enjoyments. But why do we still, to some extent, need the expectation? I’ve felt a sense of disappointment, one that arises from the unsatisfactory realities, and one that needs to be cured through following the signage to that built one, though what wait for them might be a new circle of disappointment.


Such a landscape is usually far from where travellers daily dwell, so vehicles are needed to carry out their possibly-to-fail hope.




Diary 1

01.01.2015 (11:28 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized

It draws my attention that the reader tries to clarify the fact that actually imaginary landscape is not just the work of individuals, but rather a representation from other sources, for example, the fairy tales, and also it is created by interactions of a group of individuals. I immediately think of a Chinese poet living in East Jin Dynasty, who has created a virtual landscape called Peach Blossom Spring through his works of writing. In the literature, an ideal world was described, where people lived happily by the peach blossom woods, near the origin of a spring. This work definitely comes out of something, reflected upon the dark political system the poet was involved in and finally escaped from. To use this as an evidence that imaginary landscape is constructed is right. But I would like to also emphasize the particularity of this individual—his background and personality: After all, not all people living in that era managed to create this masterpiece. The poet’s unique talent and the vicissitudes his family has experienced contribute to his creation—in this sense, this work is not only the representation of the era which he can’t deny, but also the representation of him himself. This, is not the emphasis of the idea of individualism, but rather as a trace back to how an imaginary landscape can be created by a particular individual.

I empathize with the same feeling sometimes jargon makes the laymen angry. This might be due to the reason that jargon is like a border, a barrier to prevent the outsiders from entering in.

The intentionality is something I understand like the active effect exerted by the subject, quite similar to what Kant has argued. This is in accordance with the example I’ve made before—the poet’s own perception. If using Hanson’s idea about the thematic framework, this might mean that the poet’s family background and personality helped shape his angle of viewing the world he had to immerse in.

Here the reader has reminded to differentiate the imaginaries: The good imaginaries and the ethically dubious imaginaries. The reader extended this assertion by saying that the ethically dubious ones are often ill-informed and faraway from the realities–a standard which the judgment is based upon. Here ethics is being involved.

Berger and Luckman’s idea is quite similar to what Hofstede has presented about the layers of culture (the onion diagram), where there is a schema about how we program our minds through practice, specifically in the business and organizations, though he does not pay specific attention to knowledge.

I have to stop here today. It’s another world of knowledge, about landscape, quite different from my mind structure……But nearer to my nature of being.

P.S. One thing surprised me here, in Newcastle upon Tyne! I find some landscapes that are quite similar to my home country! It’s like the prairie in the Inner Mongolia. I’ll photo them and make some sketches J but…..the sky is not clear enough, like the air pollution…I’ll photoshop them……