mac online apple blackjack http://www.euro-online.org

DMS8013: 4. Algorithms and Generativity: The Map is not the Territory

Aims

  • To learn about the history of algorithms and generative computer code
  • To think about the ways that computers ‘model life’ or otherwise connect to the physical world
  • To experience creating generative systems

Algorithm (خوارزمي‎‎): “a description of the method by which a task is to be accomplished,”

History of Computer Science (and previously in mathematics)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_algorithms

In art/music/education Shintaro Miyazaki & Michael Chinen, Algorythmic Sorting

Literature and Poetry

The Oulipo and Exercises in Style, Raymond Queneau

Algorithmic Poetry http://www.netzliteratur.net/cramer/concepts_notations_software_art.htmltex

 

Formalism vs Action

The algorithm “is the unifying concept for all the activities which computer scientists engage in.” Provisionally a “de- scription of the method by which a task is to be accomplished,” the algorithm is thus the fundamental entity with which computer scientists operate.[…] But the algorithm is not simply the theoretical entity studied by computer scientists. Algorithms have a real existence embodied in the class libraries of programming languages, in the software used to render web pages in a browser (indeed, in the code used to render a browser itself on a screen), in the sorting of entries in a spreadsheet and so on.

Fuller, M. (2008). Software Studies: A Lexicon. Leonardo Books, MIT Press. p17

So (what I’ll call) the mode of material expression is vital, powerful etc.

A conception of the algorithm as a statement as Michel Foucault used the term might allow us to understand this approach a little better. For Foucault, the statement is not analytically reducible to the syntactic or semantic features of a language; it refers instead to its historical existence and the way that this historical existence accomplishes particular actions. […] As Foucault puts it in The Archaeology of Knowledge, “to speak is to do some- thing—something other than to express what one thinks, to translate what one knows, and something other than to play with the structure of language.

Fuller, M. (2008). Software Studies: A Lexicon. Leonardo Books, MIT Press. p17

Generativity: Modelling life?

In a sense we can think of the field of cybernetics as an orientation

Cybernetics: “Our bodies are hardware, our behavior software”

‘In a sense, the original purpose of Cybernetics was to produce a unified theory of the control levels and types of messages used by men and machines and processes in normal operation. Thus the history of computer technology may be interpreted as progress in making communication between men and machines more natural and complete. This remains an ideal definition however, because quite often in industry human beings have been adapted to inhuman machine schedules, rather than the other way around. What is less realized is that most businesses of any size have had to adapt themselves,more or less traumatically,to radically different patterns of administration and organization as the result of information structures made possible by computer systems. So in part Software addresses itself to the personal and social sensibilities altered by this revolution.’

 

‘It is now empirically clear that Darwinian evolutionary theory contained a very great error in its identification of the unit of sur-vival under natural selection. The unit which was believed to be crucial and around which the theory was set up was either the breeding individual or the family line or the subspecies or some similar homogeneous set of conspecifics. Now I suggest that the last 100 years have demonstrated empirically that if an organism or aggregate of organisms sets to work with a focus on its own survival and thinks that that is the way to select its adaptive moves, its “progress” ends up with a destroyed environ- ment. […] The flexible environment must also be included along with the flexible organism because, as I have already said, the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. The unit of survival is a flexible organism-in-its-environment.’ Bateson, Gregory. “Form, substance, and difference.” Essential Readings in Biosemiotics (1970): 501. p508

 

 Software Information Technology. Its Meaning for Art.

Generative Code

Meanwhile in computer science bleeding to art practice people became interested in algorithmic modelling, generative processes on both ontological and processual levels.

Such as Conway and the game of life.

‘These artistic systems are not wholly deterministic, running an image through pre-set parameters until it reaches perfection. Indeed, Latham realized early on that the most interesting outcomes of his program were quite unforeseen by him: his evolutionary program could arrive at unexpected conclusions. Even if an artist programs the computer from the start, there will always be an important element of mystery in the working of the software. Such quirks render the computer less mechanistic (and predictable) and more “artistic,” because the outcome of certain operations cannot always be foreseen. is unpredictability can be harnessed in the same way as the chemical reactions of pigments, or the densities of stone. In other words, an artist develops a feel for its working and gradually incorporates its idiosyncrasies into their work, which itself changes subtly or overtly to accommodate these properties.’ Lambert, Nicholas, William Latham, and Frederic Fol Leymarie. “The emergence and growth of evolutionary art: 1980–1993.” ACM SIGGRAPH 2013 Art Gallery. ACM, 2013.
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2503656
‘For Lev Manovich, contemporary generative art is distinctively concerned with complexity, unlike the paradigm of reduction that characterised abstraction in the visual arts in the first half of the twentieth century.’

‘Software art systems are concrete collections of objects, relations, actions and processes. In part they are formal but constructed ontologies, describing entities and their interrelations. These ontologies are partly metaphorical or figurative—constructing for example «agents» in an «environment.» They are also partly technical / textual, in the sense that the implementation of these figures occurs within the structures of a formal language with particular representational and computational limits. How do we read such systems, critically? They are literally texts, in their source code, but also in a critical sense, in that they involve specific figurations, relations, decisions, values and ideologies.’ Whitelaw, Mitchell. “System stories and model worlds: A critical approach to generative art.” Readme 100 (2005): 135-154.

http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Universal_Turing_machine

 

Sketches from today: session_4_algorithms_and_generativity

 

TASK:

Take my generative boids sketch and make it sing the music of the spheres. You’ll need to:

  • include processing sound library
  • decide what sounds you’re going to make
  • look in to the particles class and decide how you’re going trigger or affect the sounds. This should probably be some function of the distance between nearby particles

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Current Students

Students currently studying Master in Creative Arts Practice

Ares Rabe 

Shawn Ma

Chloe Manyue Yu 

Chrissy Shou Yu Chen

Ben Woolsey

Megan Wilson

Jade Mallabone

Garry Lydon

Michael Hirst

Sarah Davy

Alexei Crawley

Lewis Brown

Daniel Bradwell

Ashley Bowes

 

 

Previous Students

CAP

2015-2016

Meena DaneshyarMaria Clemente – AlbaceteSean Cotterill

Xiyuan TanYue WangRiar Rizaldi

Daniel Parry

 

Previous Students

CAP

2014-2015

MeteorEdmund Nesveda

Clive WrightChilly Rain

Wenya ChenTrong Cuong Dao

Yousif AbdulghaniTan

BartiZhang Wei

 

2013-2014

Yinzhen BaoTatiana Fujimori
Jaejun HwangSaksit Knunkitti
Wenchang LinClare Robertson
Tunc Karkutoglu

Mres Digital Media
Adrian ParkBen HoldenIsobel Taylor
James DavollNina LimardoXue Yan
Aaron SmilesAlessandro AltavillaAndrew Nixon
Andrzwej WojtasBen FreethBen Thompson
Helen CollardJane DudmanJoseph Pochciol
Pengfei ZhangSanjay Mortimer
Ewelina Aleksandrowicz (Tikul)

 

HSS8123 Creative Practice Project – The Contexts

Romance of the Three Kindoms (1385)

 

 

The author of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Luo Guanzhong, lived in the chaos of the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties. At that time social unrest grew and peasant uprisings came one after another. After many years of war, Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan Dynasty and established the Ming dynasty. During this period, many people were homeless, including Luo Guanzhong who wrote Zaju and scripts for story-telling. Because he lived at the bottom of society, he understood and was familiar with what people were suffering. Hoping for social stability and people living and working in peace and contentment, he created this historical novel using the historical facts of the late Eastern Han Dynasty.

 

 

 

Journey to the West (1558)

 

 

The author Wu Cheng’en lived in the late Ming dynasty. At that time, the social situation was very different from that at the beginning of the founding period. Political contradictions, national contradictions and the internal contradictions of the ruling class were intensified and sharpened. After the ideological and cultural enlightenment thought expanded and the liberation of human nature increasingly flourished, and fiction and opera creation entered a period of full prosperity. In terms of the economy, capitalist started to bud.

“Journey to the West” has a pantheon of gods and demons: One of the gods in the pantheon is lead by the Jade Emperor. This hierarchical system, which is in fact a political system that reflects the reality of the Ming dynasty. In this system, the ruler living a privileged life, and their status is tenured and hereditary.

The demons in the book are a reflection of the common people, who can be divided into three categories: The first one is from within the ruling group, who made a mistake and were relegated to the lower realms. The second one is the good citizens and the third category is composed of purely bad people. This series of characters mirrors ‘a good deed begets good and an evil deed yields evil’, which reflects the author’s notion of the boundary of good and evil which can not be blurred.

 

 

 

Romeo and Juliet (1595)

 

 

‘Romeo and Juliet’ is the first mature tragedy that Shakespeare created. Because the work is filled with a “spring and youth” atmosphere, it is a called romantic love tragedy. This work was written in the late 16th century, when the Renaissance began to sprout. At that time the United Kingdom was in the heyday of Queen Elizabeth’s rule, the regnum was steady, the economy was prosperous. Shakespeare was full of confidence in the achievement of the ideal of humanism in society. Thus the work is filled with optimistic mood. The emerging bourgeoisie as a new social force on the stage of history not only meant that the economic base, class structure changed, but also the superstructure changed.

The bourgeoisie brought its own outlook on the world into history, and during this period it focused on humanism. Humanists advocated the “people” as the center, strongly opposed to the dictatorship of theocracy and the authority of the church, and demanded human rights and dignity. The basic conflict in the book is not only the contradiction between the two feudal families, but also the contradictory struggle between the two social forces, which were the social roots of the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet.

 

 

 

Hamlet (1601)

 

 

At the turn of the seventeenth century, Britain was in the transitional period of the feudal system to the capitalist system, which was a great turning point in British history. During the boom of Elizabeth’s rule, the bourgeoisie supported the monarchy, and the monarchy used the bourgeoisie. As the political situation was relatively stable, social productivity saw rapid development. Although the development of these emerging capitalist relations of production accelerated the collapse of the feudal society, it still relied on the brutal exploitation of the peasantry. During the reign of James I, the autocratic monarchy was further pursued, and the resistance of the bourgeoisie and the working people was vigorously suppressed. Social contradictions further intensified, it fundamentally shook the feudal order, and the prepared conditions for 17th century British bourgeois revolution.

‘Hamlet’ is the ‘epitome’ of this era. The struggle between Hamlet and Claudius is a symbol of the struggle of the emerging bourgeois humanists and the reactionary feudal kingship.

The Renaissance movement brought Europe into the awakening of the ‘people’, and belief in God began to waver. This is the great liberation of thought which promoted the great development of social civilization; the other hand, especially to the late Renaissance, followed by the spread of desires and social confusion. Faced with such a chaotic era, the middle-aged Shakespeare, wanted to show the hidden trouble behind the ideal and development.

 

 

 

The Outlaws of the Marsh (1630)

 

 

The Outlaws of the Marsh is the first book in the history of Chinese literature that directly describe the main contradiction of the feudal society – the peasant class and the landlord class contradictions on a large scale. The work depicts a vigorous peasant revolutionary struggle, showing a magnificent scene of struggle for life. The novel exposes the darkness of the feudal society, the evil of the ruling class, and reveals that the social roots of the peasant uprising are cruel feudal oppression and exploitation, praising the justice of the peasant revolutionary struggle. The novel describes the representatives of the ruling class from the Gao Qiu to Zhenf Zhu, they formed a dark ruling network, which brought great disaster to people. The novel also shapes the heroic image of Li Kui, Lu Zhishen, Wu Song and Lin Chong, and praises the rebellious spirit of the peasant uprising heroes.

 

 

 

Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (1690)

 

 

Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio is a series of classical short stories which is unique and artistic. Most of the stories are tell of ghosts and monsters, but the content is deeply rooted in real life, and euphemistically reflect the social contradictions of that time. The stories can be classified into 5 categories. The first one is the stories which reflect the social darkness, expose and oppose the feudal ruling class oppression. The second one is against the feudal marriage, criticises feudal ethical education, and praises young men and women pursue pure love and fight for freedom and happiness. The third category is to expose and criticize the corruption of the imperial examination system. The fourth one is to praise the oppressed people with the spirit of the struggle against authority. The last one is the stories which educate people to be honest, helpful, hardworking, etc..

An interesting phenomenon is that in the Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, there are many female roles. Even though the female images is shaped from the perspective of maleism, not completely divorced from feudal thought, it gives the female image new connotations.

 

 

 

Gulliver’s Travels (1726)

 

 

The author of Gulliver’s Travels is Jonathan Swift. During the period of 1710 to 1714, he was appointed as a public relations officer of Robert Harry and Henry St John’s Tory Party. But later, the parties alternated, the Whigs came to power. Swift wrote the book in order to reflect the social contradictions of England in the first half of the 18th century, criticize the decadence of the British ruling group, expose the exploitation of the bourgeoisie at that time, and sharply refute all attempts to defend the social system at that time and oppose the wars of aggression and colonialism. Later, the author also went to Ireland to teach. Ireland was subject to the high pressure of England rule, so that the author reflected the decline of Irish agriculture through the third island travels in the book.

 

 

 

A Dream of Red Mansions (1791)

 

 

‘A Dream of Red Mansions’ describes Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu’s love tragedy, and the declining process of four big families, reflecting the feudal society brutal class oppression, exposing the darkness and decay of the feudal system, showing the inevitable trend of collapse of feudal society and proposing the ideals with the hazy democratic thinking. Besides, the praise for the girls and the sympathy and respect for the weak in the book laid the foundation for the later liberation of the women, marriage autonomy and today’s feminist movement.

 

 

 

Pride and prejudice (1813)

 

 

Austin was unmarried and lived in a relatively wealthy family in a rural town. So that in her work, there are no major social contradictions, just a peaceful life of landlords, pastors and other people. From the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, ‘sentimental novels’ and ‘Gothic novels’ filled the British literary world. However, Pride and Prejudice was anomalous and shows the daily life of the British middle class in a country who’s life had not yet been hit by the capitalist industrial revolution.

The work is perhaps one of the greatest love novels in the world, and it ‘tells you that women have the right to live better, and should not think of what the women should take.’

 

 

 

Wuthering Heights (1847)

 

 

Emilie Bronte lived in thirty years of social turbulence in Britain. Capitalism was developing and increasingly exposed to its inherent flaws. There were sharp contradictions between labor and capital and the unemployed workers were poor. Besides, a large number of child laborers were cruelly tortured to death and the British government restricted the democratic reform struggle and the workers’ movement. People’s spirits suffered from the intense oppression. Humanity as twisted without mercy. Another feature of the time was patriarchy. At that time, the Victorian period, the noble class were enormously proud of their success. Status is first, money is god and women’s marriage, to a large extent, determines their fate.

The work is mainly carried out to explore human nature for people to realize that if there is no humanity, the world will become ugly, shrill and painful. The grotesque love story exposes the evil of patriarchal society and criticisms toward disrespect of the female.

HSS8123 Creative Practice Project – Making Process

Step 1: print out the pie charts

Step 2: cut them into pieces

Step 3: make ten cone-shaped bases

Step 4: stick the pieces on the bases respectively

Step 5: stick stamen on each 3D flower-shaped object

 Step 6: paint the plinths

 Step 7: Finished

 

HSS8123 Creative Practice Project – Ten Pie Charts

HSS8123 Creative Practice Project – Initial Thinking

It took me a long time to figure out which field should I research, which I’m turely interested in. Even thought I’m not an advanced English speaker, I still wanted to explore the relationships between Chinese and English, which leads me to study the field of Comparative literature. Besides, the collaborative project – making a dashboard in order to visualize the data that we did during the class inspire me to discover more about information visualization. After the initial idea generated, I did some research in terms of these two field, and think about how to integrate them.

After that, I aimed that my project would focus on one of the earlist diagram to illustrate data – pie chart, researching the potential of it.

HSS8123 – Derivative Booklets (PDF)

Behold – the body of work produced for my degree show project!

1. Summary Judgement (music)
1. Summary Judgement

2. Beautiful Infighting (video)
2. Beautiful Infighting

3. Changelogs (games)
3. Changelogs

4. Oulipean Pataphysical Plagiarising Nonsense
4. Oulipean Pataphysical Plagarising Nonsense

HSS8123 – Launch Night

The launch went pretty well, I think. Despite some last-minute hiccups, everything was in place on time. Four booklets, deriving their contents from four different mediums (music, video, games and literature), fifty-two different poems (some of them shorter than others, admittedly, although the short ones were often the hardest thanks to the obscure restrictions imposed upon them).


Feels like quite an achievement, and having something gallery-worthy is a first as well. I’m satisfied that I managed to come up with something with visual and physical elements that made it worth displaying in a fine art gallery context, while still staying true to my own interests and creative practice.


Whether I handled the display aspects well is another matter – there are definitely a few things I would have done differently given hindsight & time. It’s possible that it wasn’t 100% clear that my exhibit was part of the show and ignored it, but it’s also possible that it simply wasn’t audiovisual enough for a fine art audience. I definitely overestimated people’s interest in coming over to check out the shelves and explore the details hidden there, but there is still a week to go, so it could well still find its audience.


If what I made was a puzzle (fine art will always be a puzzle to me, even/especially the stuff that I like), and I do think it has a lot of puzzle-like aspects to it, then not that people really tried to solve it. There were just too many pieces, and despite my best efforts most of them weren’t very eye-catching. But I think I’m fine with that – the body of work I managed to create for this project is very satisfying and useful to me, and as a first foray into exhibiting my art I think was a great experiment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HSS8123 – An Index of Plagiarisms

Now that the pamphlets for my final project are mostly done, here’s an attempt at to list all the different sources and techniques I used in creating them:

SOURCES:
Summary Judgement
The Big Bang Theory (TV show)
Soft Kitty – Edith Newlin (song)
“Let’s Go Crazy” #1 – Stephanie Lenz (video)
Let’s Go Crazy – Prince (song)
Photograph – Ed Sheeran (song)
Amazing – Matt Cardle (song)
Ice Ice Baby – Vanilla Ice (song)
Under Pressure – Queen (song)
Chocolat – Mi Casa (song)
Chocolate – DJ Novi (song)
Blurred Lines – Robin Thicke (song)
Got to Give It Up (Marvin Gaye)
Melissa Ferrick (musician)
Spotify (music website)
Napster (file-sharing website)

Beautiful Infighting
Catcall – Rob Bliss (film)
Shoshana Roberts (actress)
Starr Mazer DSB – Imagos Softworks (game)
Alex Mauer (musician)
Cool Cat Saves the Kids – Derek Savage (film)
Review of Cool Cat Saves the Kids – I Hate Everything (video)
Review of Cool Cat Saves the Kids – Your Movie Sucks (video)
Bold Guy vs Parkour Girl – Matthew Hosseinzadeh (video)
Parody of Bold Guy vs Parkour Girl – h3h3 (video)
The Slaughtering Grounds – Digital Homicide (game)
Review of the Slaughtering Grounds – Jim Sterling (video)

Changelogs
Pokemon Red & Blue Version – Nintendo (game)
Pokemon Silver & Gold Version – Nintendo (game)
Cooking Mama – Nintendo (game)
Super Mario Bros. – Nintendo (game)
Pokemon Uranium Version – InvoluntaryTwitch (game)
Pokemon Black and Blue Version – PETA (game)
Pokemon Red White and Blue Version – PETA (game)
Cooking Mama: Mama Kills Animals – PETA (game)
Mario Kills Tanooki – PETA (game)
Super Meat Boy – Team Meat (game)
Super Tofu Boy – PETA (game)
Bioshock – 2K Games (game)
Fallout – Bethesda (game)
Castlevania II: Simon’s Quest – Konami (game)
CR Pachinko Akumajo Dracula – Konami (pachinko machine)
Donald Trump’s Real Estate Tycoon – Activision Value (game)
Supreme Ruler: Trump Rising – Battlegoat Studios (game)
Super POTUS Trump – Emerson Design Inc (game)
An Index of Plagiarisms in Lanark – Alasdair Grey (prose)

Oulipean Pataphysical Plagiarising Nonsense
The Road Not Taken – Robert Frost (poem)
A Red, Red Rose – Robert Burns (poem)
Funeral Blues – W.H. Auden (poem)
I Found the Quine – Jackie Kay (poem)
Sonnet 18 – Shakespeare (poem)
Daddy – Sylvia Plath (poem)
Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night – Dylan Thomas (poem)
This Be The Verse – Philip Larkin (poem)
Mother Any Distance – Simon Armitage (poem)
Green Eggs and Ham – Dr Seuss (poem)
The Tay Bridge Diasaster – William McGonagall (poem)
To His Coy Mistress – Andrew Marvell (poem)
The Lovesong of J.Alfred Prufrock – T.S. Eliot (poem)
Sonnet 43 – Elizabeth Barrett Browning (poem)
The Lady of Shalott – Alfred Lord Tennyson (poem)
Dulche Et Decorum Est – Wilfred Owen (poem)
The Jabberwocky – C.S. Lewis (poem)
The Waste Land – T.S. Eliot (poem)
Tyger Tyger – William Blake (poem)
Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats – T.S. Eliot (poem)
Halfway Down the Stairs – A.A. Milne (poem)
The Lord of the Rings trilogy – JRR Tolkein (prose)
Dungeons and Dragons – Wizards of the Coast (roleplaying game)
The Golden Shovel – Terrance Hayes (poem)
We Real Cool – Gwendolyn Brooks (poem)
The Workshop of Pataphysical Semantics – Hubert Kowalowski (review)
20 Things I’ve Stolen – David Weinberger (poem)
The Church of Scientology – L. Ron Hubbard (cult)

METHODS (Oulipean and otherwise)
Summary Judgement
Chronograms – derived from the year the lawsuit in question was filed

Beautiful Infighting
Beautiful Inlaw/Beau Presente – derived from the names of the litigious parties involved

Changelogs
Centos – derived by taking lines from various sources and recombining them
Definitional Literature – derived by substituting each word with in the text its dictionary definition
Redaction – derived by blacking out certain parts of the original text
Acrostic/Mesostic/Telostic – poems where the first/middle/last letters spell out a particular word or phrase (often used in combination)
‘Titling’ – taking the title (and first line) of the work from another work
Abecedarian – in which each word begins with the next letter of the alphabet (here combined with an acrostic)

Oulipean Pataphysical Plagiarising Nonsense
Centos – derived by taking lines from various sources and recombining them
Redaction – derived by blacking out certain parts of the original text
‘Find-and-replace’ – derived by replacing the proper nouns of a work with the proper nouns of another work
N+7 – derived by replacing each noun in the text with the next noun in the Dictionary but seven
Golden Shovel – derived by taking each word from the source poem as the final word of each line
Pataphor – derived by replacing non-figurative language with metaphor, then replacing each metaphor with pataphor (i.e. extrapolating it to a new, more literal sense)

HSS8123; Filming

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

Filming has finally been done. Given only a week in the sound studio to do what I needed, every hour counted, and it virtually became my home for that time.

The completed first set, and final models in place while filming the first “act.”

The second set, featuring the two characters Enki and Ada, as well as the scrapyard of all the failed test subjects, both in real life and in-universe.

Final set up for the second stage.

For the most part, though hectic and a little tedious at times, filming went rather smoothly. Another friend, an actual photographer, came in early during my week time limit and showed me some pointers on using the equipment I had on loan. As it turned out, my lighting was not idea, and this meant I needed to reshoot the first three scenes as their lighting quality was both bad and inconsistent with the rest of the film. Though some corners were skipped, and some scenes could have perhaps used more frames, I am at least content in knowing that I have plenty of material to actually make the film itself.

HSS8123; The Dog

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

My little clay man in his chair, Enki, is only one of two characters integral to the film I’m trying to make. The deuteragonist of the piece is Ada, the cybernetic dog created by Enki as a companion. If I thought the chair was bad, the damn dog was an even lower circle of hell, however. Unlike the chair, which only needed to have moving wheels, Ada requires more flexible movement akin to clay. He needed to be able to move his head, wag his tail, maybe even have movable legs if I was feeling especially ambitious (which, in the end, I wasn’t due to continued time constraints).

I mentioned the issue of scale in the previous post, and with Ada the dog it reared its ugly head again. In order to facilitate head movement, the plan was to incorporate a ball and socket joint into the dog’s model, allowing a fairly free range of movement in a number of directions. Obviously, this joint would have to be fairly small in comparison to the rest of the body, otherwise the proportions would be atrocious, or I’d have to scale the whole thing up to a ridiculous extent. This proved problematic for the printer, and it took many long hours of tinkering and tweaking to finally get a model it could print without horrible deformities.

The many failures of 3D printing, including some of the dog models.

An eventual success. By fixing the ball to the body, and using the joint as a face, it became much easier for the printer to process. The tail I found an elegant solution in a bit of twisted wire hooked around a small stub with a hole in it.

Next was giving the dog some texture or fur that still retained a metallic/cyber feel. This thread was one avenue, but didn’t quite work.

Another attempt at fur. A little too boisterous, and messy, however.

The idea to include fur on the dog was both a visual and technical one. Mostly it meant I wouldn’t need to include legs if the fur was thick enough, easing animation and allowing it to simply float along. As happy as I was with it, I simply couldn’t find anything with the right texture or size to properly act as fur, and so the idea was eventually scrapped.

HSS8123; More Models

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

It has been a grind, sometimes literally, but finally starting to get the models in place. Though I’ll likely only be using one, I’ve luckily been able to get some very basic clay sculpting lessons from a friend and have made a few extra tests to get a good feel for size, flexibility, and durability. many of these models are too small to properly use an armature, a vital part of the process. Indeed, many of the hurdles of this project have so far revolved around scale.

If there is one thing I am quite unhappy about with this final model is a lack of hubcaps on the wheels of the chair. I tried glue, a cleaner option, but the material used in the printing process is not very conductive to adhesion, and thus I’ve been forced to use clay as a means of keeping the wheels from falling off. Even that isn’t perfect, and they often have to be adjusted after a little rolling. They are, however, functional, which at this point I will happily take.