mac online apple blackjack http://www.euro-online.org

DMS8013: 4. Algorithms and Generativity: The Map is not the Territory

Aims

  • To learn about the history of algorithms and generative computer code
  • To think about the ways that computers ‘model life’ or otherwise connect to the physical world
  • To experience creating generative systems

Algorithm (خوارزمي‎‎): “a description of the method by which a task is to be accomplished,”

History of Computer Science (and previously in mathematics)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_algorithms

In art/music/education Shintaro Miyazaki & Michael Chinen, Algorythmic Sorting

Literature and Poetry

The Oulipo and Exercises in Style, Raymond Queneau

Algorithmic Poetry http://www.netzliteratur.net/cramer/concepts_notations_software_art.htmltex

 

Formalism vs Action

The algorithm “is the unifying concept for all the activities which computer scientists engage in.” Provisionally a “de- scription of the method by which a task is to be accomplished,” the algorithm is thus the fundamental entity with which computer scientists operate.[…] But the algorithm is not simply the theoretical entity studied by computer scientists. Algorithms have a real existence embodied in the class libraries of programming languages, in the software used to render web pages in a browser (indeed, in the code used to render a browser itself on a screen), in the sorting of entries in a spreadsheet and so on.

Fuller, M. (2008). Software Studies: A Lexicon. Leonardo Books, MIT Press. p17

So (what I’ll call) the mode of material expression is vital, powerful etc.

A conception of the algorithm as a statement as Michel Foucault used the term might allow us to understand this approach a little better. For Foucault, the statement is not analytically reducible to the syntactic or semantic features of a language; it refers instead to its historical existence and the way that this historical existence accomplishes particular actions. […] As Foucault puts it in The Archaeology of Knowledge, “to speak is to do some- thing—something other than to express what one thinks, to translate what one knows, and something other than to play with the structure of language.

Fuller, M. (2008). Software Studies: A Lexicon. Leonardo Books, MIT Press. p17

Generativity: Modelling life?

In a sense we can think of the field of cybernetics as an orientation

Cybernetics: “Our bodies are hardware, our behavior software”

‘In a sense, the original purpose of Cybernetics was to produce a unified theory of the control levels and types of messages used by men and machines and processes in normal operation. Thus the history of computer technology may be interpreted as progress in making communication between men and machines more natural and complete. This remains an ideal definition however, because quite often in industry human beings have been adapted to inhuman machine schedules, rather than the other way around. What is less realized is that most businesses of any size have had to adapt themselves,more or less traumatically,to radically different patterns of administration and organization as the result of information structures made possible by computer systems. So in part Software addresses itself to the personal and social sensibilities altered by this revolution.’

 

‘It is now empirically clear that Darwinian evolutionary theory contained a very great error in its identification of the unit of sur-vival under natural selection. The unit which was believed to be crucial and around which the theory was set up was either the breeding individual or the family line or the subspecies or some similar homogeneous set of conspecifics. Now I suggest that the last 100 years have demonstrated empirically that if an organism or aggregate of organisms sets to work with a focus on its own survival and thinks that that is the way to select its adaptive moves, its “progress” ends up with a destroyed environ- ment. […] The flexible environment must also be included along with the flexible organism because, as I have already said, the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. The unit of survival is a flexible organism-in-its-environment.’ Bateson, Gregory. “Form, substance, and difference.” Essential Readings in Biosemiotics (1970): 501. p508

 

 Software Information Technology. Its Meaning for Art.

Generative Code

Meanwhile in computer science bleeding to art practice people became interested in algorithmic modelling, generative processes on both ontological and processual levels.

Such as Conway and the game of life.

‘These artistic systems are not wholly deterministic, running an image through pre-set parameters until it reaches perfection. Indeed, Latham realized early on that the most interesting outcomes of his program were quite unforeseen by him: his evolutionary program could arrive at unexpected conclusions. Even if an artist programs the computer from the start, there will always be an important element of mystery in the working of the software. Such quirks render the computer less mechanistic (and predictable) and more “artistic,” because the outcome of certain operations cannot always be foreseen. is unpredictability can be harnessed in the same way as the chemical reactions of pigments, or the densities of stone. In other words, an artist develops a feel for its working and gradually incorporates its idiosyncrasies into their work, which itself changes subtly or overtly to accommodate these properties.’ Lambert, Nicholas, William Latham, and Frederic Fol Leymarie. “The emergence and growth of evolutionary art: 1980–1993.” ACM SIGGRAPH 2013 Art Gallery. ACM, 2013.
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2503656
‘For Lev Manovich, contemporary generative art is distinctively concerned with complexity, unlike the paradigm of reduction that characterised abstraction in the visual arts in the first half of the twentieth century.’

‘Software art systems are concrete collections of objects, relations, actions and processes. In part they are formal but constructed ontologies, describing entities and their interrelations. These ontologies are partly metaphorical or figurative—constructing for example «agents» in an «environment.» They are also partly technical / textual, in the sense that the implementation of these figures occurs within the structures of a formal language with particular representational and computational limits. How do we read such systems, critically? They are literally texts, in their source code, but also in a critical sense, in that they involve specific figurations, relations, decisions, values and ideologies.’ Whitelaw, Mitchell. “System stories and model worlds: A critical approach to generative art.” Readme 100 (2005): 135-154.

http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Universal_Turing_machine

 

Sketches from today: session_4_algorithms_and_generativity

 

TASK:

Take my generative boids sketch and make it sing the music of the spheres. You’ll need to:

  • include processing sound library
  • decide what sounds you’re going to make
  • look in to the particles class and decide how you’re going trigger or affect the sounds. This should probably be some function of the distance between nearby particles

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Current Students

Students currently studying Master in Creative Arts Practice

Ares Rabe 

Shawn Ma

Chloe Manyue Yu 

Chrissy Shou Yu Chen

Ben Woolsey

Megan Wilson

Jade Mallabone

Garry Lydon

Michael Hirst

Sarah Davy

Alexei Crawley

Lewis Brown

Daniel Bradwell

Ashley Bowes

 

 

Previous Students

CAP

2015-2016

Meena DaneshyarMaria Clemente – AlbaceteSean Cotterill

Xiyuan TanYue WangRiar Rizaldi

Daniel Parry

 

Previous Students

CAP

2014-2015

MeteorEdmund Nesveda

Clive WrightChilly Rain

Wenya ChenTrong Cuong Dao

Yousif AbdulghaniTan

BartiZhang Wei

 

2013-2014

Yinzhen BaoTatiana Fujimori
Jaejun HwangSaksit Knunkitti
Wenchang LinClare Robertson
Tunc Karkutoglu

Mres Digital Media
Adrian ParkBen HoldenIsobel Taylor
James DavollNina LimardoXue Yan
Aaron SmilesAlessandro AltavillaAndrew Nixon
Andrzwej WojtasBen FreethBen Thompson
Helen CollardJane DudmanJoseph Pochciol
Pengfei ZhangSanjay Mortimer
Ewelina Aleksandrowicz (Tikul)

 

HSS8123 – Launch Night

The launch went pretty well, I think. Despite some last-minute hiccups, everything was in place on time. Four booklets, deriving their contents from four different mediums (music, video, games and literature), fifty-two different poems (some of them shorter than others, admittedly, although the short ones were often the hardest thanks to the obscure restrictions imposed upon them).


Feels like quite an achievement, and having something gallery-worthy is a first as well. I’m satisfied that I managed to come up with something with visual and physical elements that made it worth displaying in a fine art gallery context, while still staying true to my own interests and creative practice.


Whether I handled the display aspects well is another matter – there are definitely a few things I would have done differently given hindsight & time. It’s possible that it wasn’t 100% clear that my exhibit was part of the show and ignored it, but it’s also possible that it simply wasn’t audiovisual enough for a fine art audience. I definitely overestimated people’s interest in coming over to check out the shelves and explore the details hidden there, but there is still a week to go, so it could well still find its audience.


If what I made was a puzzle (fine art will always be a puzzle to me, even/especially the stuff that I like), and I do think it has a lot of puzzle-like aspects to it, then not that people really tried to solve it. There were just too many pieces, and despite my best efforts most of them weren’t very eye-catching. But I think I’m fine with that – the body of work I managed to create for this project is very satisfying and useful to me, and as a first foray into exhibiting my art I think was a great experiment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HSS8123 – An Index of Plagiarisms

Now that the pamphlets for my final project are mostly done, here’s an attempt at to list all the different sources and techniques I used in creating them:

SOURCES:
Summary Judgement
The Big Bang Theory (TV show)
Soft Kitty – Edith Newlin (song)
“Let’s Go Crazy” #1 – Stephanie Lenz (video)
Let’s Go Crazy – Prince (song)
Photograph – Ed Sheeran (song)
Amazing – Matt Cardle (song)
Ice Ice Baby – Vanilla Ice (song)
Under Pressure – Queen (song)
Chocolat – Mi Casa (song)
Chocolate – DJ Novi (song)
Blurred Lines – Robin Thicke (song)
Got to Give It Up (Marvin Gaye)
Melissa Ferrick (musician)
Spotify (music website)
Napster (file-sharing website)

Beautiful Infighting
Catcall – Rob Bliss (film)
Shoshana Roberts (actress)
Starr Mazer DSB – Imagos Softworks (game)
Alex Mauer (musician)
Cool Cat Saves the Kids – Derek Savage (film)
Review of Cool Cat Saves the Kids – I Hate Everything (video)
Review of Cool Cat Saves the Kids – Your Movie Sucks (video)
Bold Guy vs Parkour Girl – Matthew Hosseinzadeh (video)
Parody of Bold Guy vs Parkour Girl – h3h3 (video)
The Slaughtering Grounds – Digital Homicide (game)
Review of the Slaughtering Grounds – Jim Sterling (video)

Changelogs
Pokemon Red & Blue Version – Nintendo (game)
Pokemon Silver & Gold Version – Nintendo (game)
Cooking Mama – Nintendo (game)
Super Mario Bros. – Nintendo (game)
Pokemon Uranium Version – InvoluntaryTwitch (game)
Pokemon Black and Blue Version – PETA (game)
Pokemon Red White and Blue Version – PETA (game)
Cooking Mama: Mama Kills Animals – PETA (game)
Mario Kills Tanooki – PETA (game)
Super Meat Boy – Team Meat (game)
Super Tofu Boy – PETA (game)
Bioshock – 2K Games (game)
Fallout – Bethesda (game)
Castlevania II: Simon’s Quest – Konami (game)
CR Pachinko Akumajo Dracula – Konami (pachinko machine)
Donald Trump’s Real Estate Tycoon – Activision Value (game)
Supreme Ruler: Trump Rising – Battlegoat Studios (game)
Super POTUS Trump – Emerson Design Inc (game)
An Index of Plagiarisms in Lanark – Alasdair Grey (prose)

Oulipean Pataphysical Plagiarising Nonsense
The Road Not Taken – Robert Frost (poem)
A Red, Red Rose – Robert Burns (poem)
Funeral Blues – W.H. Auden (poem)
I Found the Quine – Jackie Kay (poem)
Sonnet 18 – Shakespeare (poem)
Daddy – Sylvia Plath (poem)
Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night – Dylan Thomas (poem)
This Be The Verse – Philip Larkin (poem)
Mother Any Distance – Simon Armitage (poem)
Green Eggs and Ham – Dr Seuss (poem)
The Tay Bridge Diasaster – William McGonagall (poem)
To His Coy Mistress – Andrew Marvell (poem)
The Lovesong of J.Alfred Prufrock – T.S. Eliot (poem)
Sonnet 43 – Elizabeth Barrett Browning (poem)
The Lady of Shalott – Alfred Lord Tennyson (poem)
Dulche Et Decorum Est – Wilfred Owen (poem)
The Jabberwocky – C.S. Lewis (poem)
The Waste Land – T.S. Eliot (poem)
Tyger Tyger – William Blake (poem)
Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats – T.S. Eliot (poem)
Halfway Down the Stairs – A.A. Milne (poem)
The Lord of the Rings trilogy – JRR Tolkein (prose)
Dungeons and Dragons – Wizards of the Coast (roleplaying game)
The Golden Shovel – Terrance Hayes (poem)
We Real Cool – Gwendolyn Brooks (poem)
The Workshop of Pataphysical Semantics – Hubert Kowalowski (review)
20 Things I’ve Stolen – David Weinberger (poem)
The Church of Scientology – L. Ron Hubbard (cult)

METHODS (Oulipean and otherwise)
Summary Judgement
Chronograms – derived from the year the lawsuit in question was filed

Beautiful Infighting
Beautiful Inlaw/Beau Presente – derived from the names of the litigious parties involved

Changelogs
Centos – derived by taking lines from various sources and recombining them
Definitional Literature – derived by substituting each word with in the text its dictionary definition
Redaction – derived by blacking out certain parts of the original text
Acrostic/Mesostic/Telostic – poems where the first/middle/last letters spell out a particular word or phrase (often used in combination)
‘Titling’ – taking the title (and first line) of the work from another work
Abecedarian – in which each word begins with the next letter of the alphabet (here combined with an acrostic)

Oulipean Pataphysical Plagiarising Nonsense
Centos – derived by taking lines from various sources and recombining them
Redaction – derived by blacking out certain parts of the original text
‘Find-and-replace’ – derived by replacing the proper nouns of a work with the proper nouns of another work
N+7 – derived by replacing each noun in the text with the next noun in the Dictionary but seven
Golden Shovel – derived by taking each word from the source poem as the final word of each line
Pataphor – derived by replacing non-figurative language with metaphor, then replacing each metaphor with pataphor (i.e. extrapolating it to a new, more literal sense)

HSS8123; Filming

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

Filming has finally been done. Given only a week in the sound studio to do what I needed, every hour counted, and it virtually became my home for that time.

The completed first set, and final models in place while filming the first “act.”

The second set, featuring the two characters Enki and Ada, as well as the scrapyard of all the failed test subjects, both in real life and in-universe.

Final set up for the second stage.

For the most part, though hectic and a little tedious at times, filming went rather smoothly. Another friend, an actual photographer, came in early during my week time limit and showed me some pointers on using the equipment I had on loan. As it turned out, my lighting was not idea, and this meant I needed to reshoot the first three scenes as their lighting quality was both bad and inconsistent with the rest of the film. Though some corners were skipped, and some scenes could have perhaps used more frames, I am at least content in knowing that I have plenty of material to actually make the film itself.

HSS8123; The Dog

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

My little clay man in his chair, Enki, is only one of two characters integral to the film I’m trying to make. The deuteragonist of the piece is Ada, the cybernetic dog created by Enki as a companion. If I thought the chair was bad, the damn dog was an even lower circle of hell, however. Unlike the chair, which only needed to have moving wheels, Ada requires more flexible movement akin to clay. He needed to be able to move his head, wag his tail, maybe even have movable legs if I was feeling especially ambitious (which, in the end, I wasn’t due to continued time constraints).

I mentioned the issue of scale in the previous post, and with Ada the dog it reared its ugly head again. In order to facilitate head movement, the plan was to incorporate a ball and socket joint into the dog’s model, allowing a fairly free range of movement in a number of directions. Obviously, this joint would have to be fairly small in comparison to the rest of the body, otherwise the proportions would be atrocious, or I’d have to scale the whole thing up to a ridiculous extent. This proved problematic for the printer, and it took many long hours of tinkering and tweaking to finally get a model it could print without horrible deformities.

The many failures of 3D printing, including some of the dog models.

An eventual success. By fixing the ball to the body, and using the joint as a face, it became much easier for the printer to process. The tail I found an elegant solution in a bit of twisted wire hooked around a small stub with a hole in it.

Next was giving the dog some texture or fur that still retained a metallic/cyber feel. This thread was one avenue, but didn’t quite work.

Another attempt at fur. A little too boisterous, and messy, however.

The idea to include fur on the dog was both a visual and technical one. Mostly it meant I wouldn’t need to include legs if the fur was thick enough, easing animation and allowing it to simply float along. As happy as I was with it, I simply couldn’t find anything with the right texture or size to properly act as fur, and so the idea was eventually scrapped.

HSS8123; More Models

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

It has been a grind, sometimes literally, but finally starting to get the models in place. Though I’ll likely only be using one, I’ve luckily been able to get some very basic clay sculpting lessons from a friend and have made a few extra tests to get a good feel for size, flexibility, and durability. many of these models are too small to properly use an armature, a vital part of the process. Indeed, many of the hurdles of this project have so far revolved around scale.

If there is one thing I am quite unhappy about with this final model is a lack of hubcaps on the wheels of the chair. I tried glue, a cleaner option, but the material used in the printing process is not very conductive to adhesion, and thus I’ve been forced to use clay as a means of keeping the wheels from falling off. Even that isn’t perfect, and they often have to be adjusted after a little rolling. They are, however, functional, which at this point I will happily take.

HSS8123; More Models

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

It has been a grind, sometimes literally, but finally starting to get the models in place. Though I’ll likely only be using one, I’ve luckily been able to get some very basic clay sculpting lessons from a friend and have made a few extra tests to get a good feel for size, flexibility, and durability. many of these models are too small to properly use an armature, a vital part of the process. Indeed, many of the hurdles of this project have so far revolved around scale.

If there is one thing I am quite unhappy about with this final model is a lack of hubcaps on the wheels of the chair. I tried glue, a cleaner option, but the material used in the printing process is not very conductive to adhesion, and thus I’ve been forced to use clay as a means of keeping the wheels from falling off. Even that isn’t perfect, and they often have to be adjusted after a little rolling. They are, however, functional, which at this point I will happily take.

HSS8123; Sets and Models

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

 

Having ideas is one thing, making them physical is entirely another. Although I am happy with the ideas I’m currently running with, they have presented many of their own time consuming issues which need to be overcome. On a more positive note, over the past few weeks I’ve at the very least been able to gather most of the materials I’ll need for a set and been able to stitch plans together now knowing how much space I have to work with. The primary idea is to have two sets, one in white to represent the sterile environment of a laboratory while the other is to be of the outside, in a desert and scrapyard to be precise.

Playing around with arts and crafts to see what works.

Prop and environment making. Here we have a computer made from an old alarm clock. The surgery table is made from the back of the same clock, while the arms are wires, floss brushes, and coloured beads.

However, though set building may be going well, model making is not. In the previous post I talked about the prospect of making my main character wheelchair bound, alleviating many of the technical necessities normally part of making stop-motion. However, 3D printing such a chair has been proving to be a headache too; the printer does not work well with small parts, and any item needs to be of a certain scale for a successful print to take place. Getting the chair and accompanying axle and wheels to a size that isn’t too big for my sets or props, but which could also be printed to a decent standard so as to still fit together is proving to be very demanding. Given the speed of printing, this also means many hours are going down the drain.

Early model for a chair. At first glance this may seem perfectly functional, but getting axles and wheels to go with it at such a small scale is proving impossible.

A larger model. Better on scale, but an error near the end of printing meant the chair was not finished.

As exciting a technology as 3D printing is, it’s still very much taking its baby steps, at least as far as our printer is concerned. Beyond the often excruciating time needed to print anything, trying to print anything smaller than an inch is prone to failure. Sometimes this applies even to items on larger scales – the printer is prone to jamming and other errors, and when one such failure occurs the entire print needs to be started again. After, of course, a lengthy repair period.

HSS8123; Sets and Models

*Finally got around to posting this now that the blog is back up and I’m not as swamped with the project itself.

 

Having ideas is one thing, making them physical is entirely another. Although I am happy with the ideas I’m currently running with, they have presented many of their own time consuming issues which need to be overcome. On a more positive note, over the past few weeks I’ve at the very least been able to gather most of the materials I’ll need for a set and been able to stitch plans together now knowing how much space I have to work with. The primary idea is to have two sets, one in white to represent the sterile environment of a laboratory while the other is to be of the outside, in a desert and scrapyard to be precise.

Playing around with arts and crafts to see what works.

Prop and environment making. Here we have a computer made from an old alarm clock. The surgery table is made from the back of the same clock, while the arms are wires, floss brushes, and coloured beads.

However, though set building may be going well, model making is not. In the previous post I talked about the prospect of making my main character wheelchair bound, alleviating many of the technical necessities normally part of making stop-motion. However, 3D printing such a chair has been proving to be a headache too; the printer does not work well with small parts, and any item needs to be of a certain scale for a successful print to take place. Getting the chair and accompanying axle and wheels to a size that isn’t too big for my sets or props, but which could also be printed to a decent standard so as to still fit together is proving to be very demanding. Given the speed of printing, this also means many hours are going down the drain.

Early model for a chair. At first glance this may seem perfectly functional, but getting axles and wheels to go with it at such a small scale is proving impossible.

A larger model. Better on scale, but an error near the end of printing meant the chair was not finished.

As exciting a technology as 3D printing is, it’s still very much taking its baby steps, at least as far as our printer is concerned. Beyond the often excruciating time needed to print anything, trying to print anything smaller than an inch is prone to failure. Sometimes this applies even to items on larger scales – the printer is prone to jamming and other errors, and when one such failure occurs the entire print needs to be started again. After, of course, a lengthy repair period.

HSS8123 – Success!

Well, that didn’t take long. In fact, it took less than a minute for an unlisted video to get blocked, so either the ghost of Prince was standing right behind me when I uploaded it, or it YouTube’s algorithms are pretty good at policing video content. Good to know.

HSS8123 – …aaand we’re back!

Which is to say the course blog is back up and I’m back, with two weeks off from my new job to really knuckle down and make all the scattered ideas from the last few months into a coherent reality.

Here are the three posts that went up on my other blog while this one was down: one to introduce my degree project on my personal blog, two a poem about theft by David Weinburger (which I discovered while researching and really resonates with what I’m trying to do) and three excerpts from my final project.

And finally, some more teasers in the form of video/image collages that came about as a byproduct of the poems I’ve been writing:

More documentation and excerpts to follow, although I might find myself focusing more on the dissertation as opposed to writing the kinds of explanatory posts I normally do. We’ll see, I’d like to write something about the Oulipo and Lawrence Lessig, and maybe some of the bits and bobs of plagiarism that I don’t feel like I’ll be able to give enough context in the work itself.